1. Plot. The events of a story. A series of actions and reactions. A cause-and-effect sequence of things happening to propel a character from a beginning, through a middle, to an end.
  2. Character. The who of a story. The people or creatures who populate the world, who make the decisions that drive the plot, and who let the audience vicariously experience and relate to it all.
  3. World. The environment of a story. The environment is where it all takes place. This includes physical details, like geography, time, and season, as well as cultural elements like social, political, and religious systems.
  4. Language. The words of a story. The grammar, style, and voice of the writing. Everything from word choice to character names to how the writer puts together sentences, paragraphs, scenes, and chapters.